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Table of Contents



Origin and History

Boxing Techniques

Boxing Skills

Boxing Equipments

Match Equipment

Practicing Boxing Techniques

The Rules of Boxing

Fitness for Boxing

Mental Preparation

Match Warming Up





Boxing often called "the manly art of self-defense” is a combat sport. Boxing or fist fighting is a sport between two matched combatants wearing padded gloves. A boxer’s primary aim is to land as many blows as possible to the head and torso of the opponent, using strength and speed to dominate the contest. The competition is divided into a specified number of rounds, usually 3 minutes long, with 1-minute rest periods between rounds. Although amateur boxing is widespread, professional boxing has flourished on an even grander scale since the early 18th century. Today the sport is popular in many parts of the world and encompasses both amateur and professional matches. Sometimes it is referred to as pugilism, from the Latin word pugil, meaning “a boxer.”


There are several types of boxing nowadays (e.g. Muay Thai or Kickboxing) but it is predominantly focused on normal boxing, of which there are two types - Professional and Amateur.


Boxing allows you to explore the sport as a means of confidence building coupled with a practical method of defending yourself. Boxing is a great way to get into the best shape of your life, as it is one of the toughest, yet also most rewarding sports that requires a fitness level and conditioning that no other sport can match.


Even if you never step into a ring, practicing the fundamentals of boxing can give you an excellent full body workout that is guaranteed to get your legs and arms moving and your heart pumping.  Our feeling about boxing is very simple. We believe that every Man (or Woman) desires the self-confidence that comes from knowing how to defend oneself. Boxing is still believed to be the "daddy" of self defense and despite all the new trendy martial arts clubs popping up everywhere it is still in the hearts and souls of many.




Origin and History


Boxing as a sport can be traced as far back as ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks believed fist fighting was one of the games played by the gods on Olympus; thus it became part of the Olympic games in about 688 BC. Homer has a reference to boxing in the Iliad. During Roman times the sport began to thrive on a wide scale. Boxers fought with leather bands around their fists for protection and sometimes wore metal-filled, leather hand coverings called cesti, resulting in bloody, often duel-to-death, battles. Boxing diminished after the fall of Rome. It resurfaced in the late 17th century and early 18th century in England. The sport at that time was actually a mixture of wrestling and boxing. Although hitting with fists was emphasized, a boxer could grab and throw his opponent, then jump on him and hit him while he was down.

The sport became especially popular during the championship reign of James Figg, who held the heavyweight title from 1719 through 1730. Prior to that James Figg had opened a boxing academy in London in 1719, and introduced a measure of skill to the sport. Figg was an expert boxer, and his academy taught the techniques of punching and counter-punching to the students.

Figg won great publicity for his academy by challenging all comers to bouts of boxing. He never lost, and was the champion of Great Britain until he retired in 1730.

His success inspired the establishment of several other boxing academies in London, and the fact that he was a fencer also gave the sport some prestige. A number of "gentlemen amateurs" took up boxing as a pastime. They also became enthusiastic fans at prizefights.

One of Figg's pupils, Jack Broughton, became known as the "father of English boxing." Broughton, generally acknowledged as champion from 1729 to 1750, taught boxing and operated an arena in London. In 1743, Jack Broughton drew his own set of rules for his own fights, and these were recognized the same year. Under Broughton's rules, there was a 3-foot square in the center of the ring. When a fighter was knocked down, his handlers had 30 seconds to get him into position on one side of the square, facing his opponent. In effect, this marked the first division of a bout into rounds, since each knockdown ended fighting for at least 30 seconds. Although wrestling holds were permitted, a boxer was not allowed to grab his opponent below the waist.

Broughton also invented the first boxing gloves, known as "mufflers," to protect not only the hands but also the face from blows. However, they were used only in practice, not in actual fights.

The rules devised by Broughton were used throughout England with only minor modifications until 1838, when the Pugilistic Society (founded in 1814) developed the London Prize Ring Rules. The new code called for a ring 24 feet square, enclosed by two ropes. A knockdown marked the end of a round. After a 30-second break, the fighters were given eight seconds to "come to scratch," unaided, in the center of the ring.

In 1866 the Marquess of Queensberry gave his support to a new set of rules, which were named in his honor. These rules limited the number of 3-minute rounds, eliminated gouging and wrestling, and made the use of gloves mandatory. Bare-knuckle bouts did not cease immediately but did begin to decline. A new era dawned in 1892, when James J. CORBETT defeated the last of the great bare-fisted fighters, John L. SULLIVAN, under the new rules.

With the growing popularity of boxing, especially in the United States, weight classes other than the unlimited heavyweights emerged. These classes became popular as world championships were held at the new weights. Currently, there are eight major professional divisions: flyweight (up to 112 lb/50.8 kg); bantamweight (118 lb/53.5 kg); featherweight (126 lb/57.2 kg); lightweight (135 lb/61.2 kg); welterweight (147 lb/66.7 kg); middleweight (160 lb/72.6 kg); light heavyweight (175 lb/79.4 kg); and heavyweight (unlimited). In recent years there has been some recognition of junior weights, or between-weights, such as junior lightweight and cruiserweight.

Because of its violent nature and its identification with betting, boxing has had a controversial history. There have been periodic efforts to outlaw the sport. The November 1982 death of South Korean boxer Duk Koo Kim, for example, prompted two editorials in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Jan. 14, 1983) calling for a ban on all boxing. The results of a study by an AMA-sponsored scientific council appeared in that same issue, and the council, expressing the official AMA position, called not for a ban but for improved controls and medical facilities at ringside, centralized record keeping, and standardization of safety regulations. Despite these periodic efforts, boxers remain internationally famous, particularly heavyweight champions, most of them, in this century; have come from the United States. Among the best heavyweights have been Muhammad ALI, Jack DEMPSEY, Jack JOHNSON, Joe LOUIS, Rocky MARCIANO, Gene TUNNEY, Corbett, and Sullivan. Outstanding champions in the lighter weights have included Benny Leonard, Mickey WALKER, Barney Ross, Henry ARMSTRONG, and Sugar Ray ROBINSON. Louis, Marciano, and Ali benefited greatly--both in popularity and financially--from the promotion of televised fights.

Asia and Latin America have produced many champions in recent years in some of the lower weight classes, which are less popular in the United States. The Communist bloc has done exceedingly well in Olympic competition.

Boxing Techniques


Boxing is a very challenging and rewarding sport. A successful boxer must have sound training and fundamental techniques. These techniques include stance, punches, feints (fakes), blocks, footwork, and other aspects of the sport sometimes called the “sweet science.” In addition, boxers often employ different strategies during a bout.


Modern training routines differ little from those of earlier times. Fighters still keep trim by working with the heavy bag, a large punching bag suspended from the ceiling, and the speed bag, a smaller bag attached to a swivel at eye level. The heavy bag enables a fighter to practice different kinds of punches while the lighter bag improves timing and coordination. Rope jumping, weightlifting, cardiovascular exercise, sparring (practice fighting) with partners, and distance running are other important training techniques. Fighters have increasingly trained at high-altitude sites to improve their conditioning, especially for high-profile bouts.


While many boxers develop unique styles, they all must have a proper stance and good footwork. These two essentials enable a boxer to maintain balance, whether advancing in an attack or retreating from an opponent. A right-handed boxer positions the left foot about one step in front of the right one and holds the left side of the body in a direct line with the left leg. The left fist, ready to jab or ward off blows, is extended slightly in front of the body at about shoulder level. The right fist should be near the jaw to protect the face or to be driven straight out if needed offensively. The chin should be kept down, tucked into the upper left shoulder. The teeth should be clamped tightly to the mouthpiece so that the mouth is protected in the event of a blow to the face.

Offensive Techniques         

To be effective, boxers must have an assortment of punches that are coordinated with their footwork. Less powerful punches often serve the important role of setting up the fighter’s chief “weapons,” as boxing analysts sometimes call a boxer’s main offensive skills.



Moving the hands or head to confuse an opponent is called feinting. A smart boxer will first test the opponent by trying different feints, noting the reaction to each one before deciding which will be most effective to set up a punch.

Left Jab      

The boxer delivers a left jab by striking out with the left arm while the left elbow is straightened sharply. A boxer opens up less with a jab than with many other types of punches. The jab can also be used to ward off blows. The jab is used to maintain the distance between yourself and your opponent, while also keeping your opponent off balance. It should be thrown when you’re on the offensive and moving forward, as well as when your opponent is initiating the action and you’re moving backward. Like a football straight arm, you’ll be able to keep your opponent at arms length. By controlling your opponent with the jab, you will be able to sit back and pick your shots using speed and accuracy.

Right Cross       

The right cross is usually the most powerful blow of a right-handed boxer. It is delivered by feinting with a left jab and, before the jab reaches the mark, driving the right fist straight out while the boxer twists to the left and pivots on the sole of the right foot.

Left Hook    

Delivering a left hook properly requires perfect coordination and timing. The boxer executes this punch by starting the left arm from the jab position with the palm facing the right, driving the hand out, and circling it in an arc.


Almost always delivered with the right hand, the uppercut is usually most effective after a jab. The blow starts from the direction of the floor and is aimed at the chin of the opponent.

Combination Punches       

A series of blows designed to make contact with a fast-moving opponent are called combination punches. This is usually accomplished with a combination of different blows, such as a left jab followed by a right cross or an uppercut.

Defensive Techniques        

All offensive boxing tactics have corresponding defenses. Clever footwork and the quick use of the hands, shoulders, and torso will protect a boxer from many threats. Techniques such as infighting and elusiveness are all-important in the defensive maneuvers of a boxer.


In infighting, the boxer keeps as close as possible to the opponent while delivering choppy punches to the body or face. Keeping close prevents the opponent from getting off long-range blows that could result in a knockout. The technique is particularly useful for boxers with a short reach.


The boxer makes vulnerable parts of the body as difficult to reach as possible. While keeping the feet steady, the fighter moves the head from side to side, keeping the body in motion to avoid becoming a stationary target. A skilled defensive fighter can often either duck punches or elude them completely.

Other Defensive Measures        

A tired boxer can go into a clinch, grabbing the opponent’s arms and holding on tightly. Another defensive technique is covering up so that both arms cover the front of the body.


Boxing Skills


In time, every boxer develops his own style. But all boxers use the same techniques of offense and defense. In the ring, a boxer adopts a basic stance (posture) that helps him move quickly and easily. A right-handed boxer keeps his left side toward his opponent and stands with his feet about shoulder-width apart. The boxer holds his left fist a short distance in front of the left shoulder and his right fist just to the right of the chin. He keeps his elbows close to the body to protect the ribs. Many left-handed boxers adopt this same stance, though some of them reverse it. The basic stance puts a boxer in the best position to avoid or block the punches of his opponent. This stance also allows the boxer to throw effective blows.

To create openings for his punches, a boxer uses various feints, jabs, and combinations. A feint is a faked punch. For example, a boxer may make a feint with his left hand and then deliver an actual blow with his right hand. A jab is a quick blow in which the arm is extended straight from the shoulder. The jab is effective as both an offensive and a defensive weapon. A combination consists of two or more lightning-fast punches in a row. A typical combination is a left, a right, and another left punch.

 We have professional boxing and amateur boxing nowadays. There are different rules and scoring system between two types of boxing. Boxing is for fun. It is a kind of conversation, primarily with yourself, and when you spar, a dialogue with your partner. Those who stay with boxing learn about focus, heart, and dedication. Boxing gives you inner strength. Boxing is not about hurting others or getting hurt. It is more about learning to let go of one's own insecurities and inadequate self-image. A few lessons on boxing skills have been discussed below to acquaint you with playing the game. These tips will help you in developing the required skills for the sport.

Lesson # 1:

"The dissuasive jab; feinted to the solar plexus".

In this lesson we are going to see 3 things:

1. How to throw a jab to the solar plexus.

2. How to jab to the top feinting a jab to the solar plexus.

3. How to use this feint as a dissuasive weapon against an opponent who tries to

   counter your jab to the bottom with a straight right.

The great Sugar Ray Robinson was a master throwing a jab to the solar plexus. And like him you can even throw it against shorter opponents.

A good indication that you are throwing it properly is when your arm is parallel to the floor at the punch's contact.

A long step and bending your knees to the maximum guarantees the proper arm position. Also bending from your waistline and leaning your upper body to the side are important points (see figure 1).

Figure 1. - There are a few minor points that you can adjust in this picture so as to suit varying situations.

Lets suppose that you have thrown a few good jabs to your opponent's body; the next time, you are going to feint throwing it low and go to his head instead.

For you to succeed you have to look at his body until your punch makes contact, also you must bend and lean your body as if you were throwing a real low jab. (see figure 2).

Figure 2. - Of course you can throw this jab even before you start throwing your low jabs.

It is more fun when facing an opponent who is highly confident in countering your jab to the bottom with a straight right hand (see figure 3).

Figure 3. - Your opponent has tried to counter with his right hand but you have made him pay for it!

Lesson # 2:

"Feinting a devastating hook to the liver area; to then elude the block and then make full contact".

Let us suppose that your opponent is constantly blocking your left hook to the body (see figure 1).

Figure 1. - With your opponent preferable against the ropes.

In order to hit him with your best-left hook you could next time do the following.

Throw a fast but soft hook inside his guard to the liver area in order to force him to move his arm or elbow and block it as he has been doing before. But at the same time you must start a full step (both feet move) as seen on figure 2.

Figure 2.- Your front foot is in the air when your fast but soft hook is blocked.

Remember that you must throw this fast but soft hook feinting that you are throwing a devastating one. For more bluff; if your used to letting out noise and air with your big hits then do so this time as well, except don't put any shoulder or twist into the hit.

Once you have finished your stepping you are set to hit a second hook (this time a real devastating one) on the opening that your opponent made when he moved his arm to block the first one, the "feinted hook" (see figures 3 and 4).

Figure 3.- Notice how your back foot crossed the line yy.

Picture 4.- Compare your foot position to all pictures.


Lesson # 3:

"The 1-1-2 with fast circular movement".

Muhammad Ali used to dance "revolving" around his opponent while simultaneously hitting them.

His famous expression "Fly like a butterfly sting like a bee", came from these movements.

This is one of Ali's classic combinations (see figure 1).

Figure 1.- Sequence.

Let suppose that you dancing on your toes around your opponent (see figure 2).

Figure 2. - See the line, you will be moving away from it during the sequence.

Throw a fast jab crossing your back foot as seen on figure 3.

Figure 3. - Try to block your opponents vision with an open hand.

Retract your arm or glove, but not much (see figure 4).

Figure 4. - Your back foot lands and full crosses the front one.

Throw a second jab uncrossing your feet (see figure 5).

Figure 5. - You connect with this second jab while your front foot is still in the air.

Once your front foot lands, follow with a right. And let the inertia work for your body. Just move with your inertia, flow and don't worry that you may get hit as you have disrupted their pattern and their timing while attacking (see figure 6).

Figure 6. - This punch is aimed a little to the right where your opponents face should be because of the angles you made while circling.




Lesson # 4:

"Hook to the body leaning to the left ---> angle chance ---> uppercut".

Let suppose that you got your opponent against the ropes (see figure 1).

Figure 1. - Looking for opening.

Lean quite a bit to the left and connect with a hook outside your opponent's guard pivoting on both of your feet to increase your hip movement (see figures 2 and 3).

Figure 2. - Pivoting on both feet.

Figure 3. - When hitting with this hook your weight stays on your left side.

Right after you connect and begin to bring back your arm, jump and pivot in the air towards the right (see figure 4).

Figure 4. - The jump and pivoting mid air begins almost simultaneously with your glove retracting.

Once your feet land you are in better position to connect and uppercut (see figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5. - Your weight on the left. You are set to punch.

Figure 6. - Compare your feet position in all pictures.

The "jump" that allowed us change angles will be known on this manual as "unclassic step". Later on I will dedicate 1 or 2 lessons to explain its meaning and also see its differences with the "classic step"). These "terms" will make it easier for us to relate to future techniques discussed.

Lesson # 5:

"The ascending jab with explosive leg power".

The "ascending jab" is effective mostly against tall opponents, it could be at times effective against opponents of more or less your own height.

Lets suppose that your opponent is taller than you and he is separate from you (at a distance) as seen on figure 1.

Figure 1. - Your opponent on the left side could be one much taller that the model.

So in order to get inside, you move forward your left foot landing heel first and began by bending your knees (see figure 2).

Figure 2. - Be sure that the heel of your foot lands first.

Keep bending your knees further and put your weight on the front (see figure 3).

Figure 3. - Bend your knees like in a squat to throw this jab with your legs' explosive power.

Then go up and forwards with your legs explosive power and hit your opponent hard with an "ascending jab" (see figure 4).

Figure 4. - Your feet are off the floor when hitting.

Once you are inside get set to throw your best punches (see figure 5).

Figure 5. - When you land, your back foot touches the ground the first.

(See variations of the "ascending jab" in lesson # 6).

Lesson # 6:

"Variations of the ascending jab".

(See definition of the "ascending jab" in lesson # 5).

The variations of this jab are many. Julio Cesar Chavez the great fighter of the 80s and 90s often used these techniques.

When throwing the ascending jab your upper body usually won't lean (see figure 1).

Figure 1. - This jab carries explosive leg power.

But if your opponent wants to surprise counter you with a straight right when you throw this jab you can lean your upper body to avoid his counter or even use classic blocking with it (see figures 2 and 3).

Figure 2. - Compare your upper body position with the one on previous picture.

Figure 3. - Leaning and blocking simultaneously.

Depending on the distance your target is at you can throw the ascending jab:

-Keeping your feet well apart from each other while in the air.
-Letting them get closer until they almost touch each other.
-Not letting them get to close as you can see on pictures above and picture 4 of lesson # 5.
-Crossing them.

Depending on your abilities and tricks you can "load" (pull back) your left shoulder before throwing the ascending jab (see figure 3 in lesson # 5).

When you're practicing this jab to start with, you should try to:

-Not let your feet get to close while in the air (hitting a target not too far away will help).
-Don't "load" your shoulder too much.
-Bend your knees a lot before throwing it.

Once you've got more practice you should start trying variations.

Also you should practice:

-The 1-2 with the ascending jab.
-The ascending jab as a weapon of offensive attack when you are backing up.
-Throwing it after you have allowed your opponents jab to go over your shoulder
simultaneously avoiding and attacking forcing your way to the inside (in this case your oponent is a tall one stepping back with each jab he throws).



Lesson # 7:

"Straight right pivoting to the right ---> straight right (against a left hander)".

Let suppose that your left hander opponent was 3 steps apart from you and that he made you follow him to the ropes. Or could be a situation where he is already on the ropes calling you to get inside and fight (see figure 1).

Figure 1.- You are moving toward your opponent.

So you begin stepping toward him and throw the strongest straight right that you can with your last step and start pivoting on your front foot (see figure 2).

Figure 2.- Your front foot that is already pivoting landed a little to the right you might need to do this too.

Keep pivoting and jump with your left foot before your back foot lands to get in the position shown on figure 3.

Figure 3.- This is your position after pivoting and jumping.

Finally with your opponent out of balance throw another right (see figure 4).

Figure 4.- This move left your opponent with no reaction time, guaranteed.

The next lesson # 8 shows exactly the same foot work seen here but viewed from an opposite angle.

Lesson # 8:

"Straight right and hook pivoting to the right ---> straight right (against a left hander)".

I am assuming you already have practiced the move shown in lesson # 7 which I actually prefer over this one.

Figure 1.- Your opponent is on the ropes and you are moving forward.

Figure 2.- Throw a straight right and start pivoting.

Figure 3.- Throw a hook while "jumping" with your left foot before your right foot lands. This soft punch helps distract your opponent.

Figure 4.- Your opponent is surprised with this move.

Figure 5.- When practicing try the the left hander's position so that you also experience the situation you put him in.



Lesson # 9:

"Jab pivoting to the right ---> uppercut or straight right".

This combination helped Ali KO Cleveland Foster in an explosive way.

It works well only when your opponent is hurt or disoriented. I am showing it only because of its similarities with the two previous moves seen in this manual.

Figure 1.- Standing anywhere in the ring.

Figure 2.- Throw a jab stepping to the right and start pivoting on your front foot when it lands.

Figure 3.- After pivoting you are set to punch.

Figure 4.- You can first follow the jab with a right hand.

Figure 5.- Or you can follow the jab with an uppercut.



Lesson # 10:

"How to free your arm from a classic tie up".

Lets suppose that your opponent keep on tieing up your arm (see figure 1) .

Figure 1.- Classic tie up.

To free your arm pull it while turning it as if you were unscrewing it (see figures 2, 3, 4).

Figure 2.- Start “unscrewing” your arm.

Figure 3.- Keep “unscrewing” your arm.

Figure 4.-Your arm is free with little effort.

Also you can add some pushing to the start of the move, I don't like it much personally because the use of force (see figures 5, 6).

Figure 5.- Give him a short and quick push with your shoulder.

Figure 6.- “Unscrew” your arm as your opponent starts losing his balance.

The push makes his muscles instantly react in reverse to his own intention, which assists you to break free with the screw out technique.

Lesson # 11:

"Rocky Marciano's phantom overhand".

You can effectively throw this phantom overhand move from a distance that is usually unthinkable when throwing a classic overhand.

A confident opponent has dropped his left hand; as he doesn't believe that you could throw any punch with your right hand from that distance (see figure 1).

Figure 1.- Look to your opponents eyes till you start your move.

Now change your sight to the body as you step forward with your front foot bending your knees a lot and dropping your glove in an arch: This preliminary move makes your opponent suspect an attack low or to the body (which causes him to react and open up further falling into the trap of your real intentions. (see figure 2).

Figure 2.- Your glove will follow a path like the one drawn.

Your legs will work like springs. Bend your knees allot, then spring up fast and let your glove continue the line of the arch; (see figures 3, 4, 5).

Figure 3.- Go up violently, fast with your legs.

Figure 4.- At this point you can look at the target, no problem.

Figure 5. - He won't see (in time) the phantom overhand coming.

This punch can also be thrown from a distance, or even a little closer or a little further than what we have just seen. If you are set up at a greater distance or if the opponent shuffles back creating more distance, you can throw it while raising your back foot making it land further forward as sometimes the great Rocky Marciano did.




Boxing Equipments


The right boxing equipment is essential for anyone training to box or just training for exercise. The important equipment includes speed bags, boxing gloves, and heavy bags. Without these pieces of equipment, it is very difficult to train properly.

Boxing equipment is absolutely crucial if you are training to be a professional fighter. Those fighters must have a certain degree of skill and talent that can't be achieved without cutting edge bowing equipment. This sort of equipment is necessary to stay ahead of the curve of sports technology. Boxing equipment is integral in the training and development of any fighter. Unless properly conditioned and equipped with the proper gear, it is nearly impossible to train to be a fighter. Boxing equipment is integral in the training and development of any fighter. Unless properly conditioned and equipped with the proper gear, it is nearly impossible to train to be a fighter.


When it comes to boxing equipment, there is nothing more important than boxing gloves. First, they protect your hands from injury, as well as cushion the blow upon impact. Second, gloves allow a boxer the freedom to punch aggressively without fear of injury. There are many brand names that produce all kinds of boxing gear. Gloves allow a boxer to train at full speed on either speed bags or in the ring. They protect both the boxer and his opponent, as well as allow them to punch each other with full force. They are by far the most important boxing accessories. Boxing gloves have changed dramatically in recent years. With the explosion of sports technology, gloves have become more lightweight and more durable. Because of this, it is important to know if you want bag gloves or regular gloves.

Boxing gloves are heavily padded to soften the impact of the blow and to protect the hands of the boxer. As an added protection, the hands are taped before being placed in the gloves, which are essentially huge mittens. Professional gloves usually weigh between 170 and 226 g (6 and 8 oz); amateur gloves average 226 to 340 g (8 to 12 oz).

Before buying your first pair of boxing gloves, here are a few things you should know Leather gloves are recommended. Leather may cost a little extra, but will last longer, and provide better support. For fitness classes, this might not an issue, but for boxing training, it is more important

The classic style boxing gloves that you always see in prizefights, are tied on with laces. Just like lacing up your shoes, laces provide a nice snug fit.

The advantage to buying a pair of boxing gloves with Velcro straps is that you can easily put on the gloves, and remove them yourself. If you have ever tried to lace a pair of gloves when nobody is around, it is almost impossible. For your average person and general training purposes, gloves with Velcro straps are very acceptable.


Boxing gloves come in small, medium, and large sizes. The average man will need a large size. The average woman is medium. This can vary between manufactures, but pretty standard.

Boxing gloves weights range from 10-20 ounces. In a professional boxing match, the fighters, usually wear 10 oz gloves.

For training purposes, most gloves weigh 12oz, 14oz, and 16 oz. The heavier the glove, the more protection it offers. For beginners, 14oz and 16oz gloves are recommended. For sparring purposes, 16oz boxing gloves are standard.


Most boxing gloves manufactured these days, have a thumb attachment feature. This was a very good idea, as it prevents a lot of thumb injuries and accidental eye gouges.


When you're buying boxing gloves, (most times people should do this the first time they buy boxing gloves) don't get the size that best fits your hand. If you can, try putting 180' inch hand wraps underneath the glove, then try putting the glove on. By putting hand wraps on, then the glove, you will see just how much the feel will change, and if you'll need a bigger size, because the hand wraps might not fit (depending on the size glove) by the size you choose before.

This advise is best used for woman with small hands, that like the smaller size glove. It is recommended however that if you feel you need a smaller size, that you should always try hand wrap underneath because it may not be the same feel that you had, or wanted before.


Amateurs, wear shorts and vests, professionals wear shorts only. In many amateur competitions, one boxer will be dressed in red, and the other in blue.

All boxers wear boots, a gumshield to protect the teeth, tape over the hands and a protector around the crotch. The gloves are well padded and weigh 284 grammes (10 ounces). Amateur boxers wear headguards too.

Amateur boxers are allowed up to 2.5 metres (8 feet 4 inches) of soft dry bandage. Professional boxers are allowed up to 5.5 metres (18 feet 2 inches) of soft dry bandage. This is for protection of the hands. Tape must not be put over the knuckles.

Boxing shoes

The proper boxing shoes are absolutely essential for any boxer. Shoes must be specifically chosen based on the strengths of the fighter, and must be extremely comfortable. It is crucial that the boxer be very comfortable so he can be mobile and agile. These break down into two main categories, high-top and low-top. High-top shoes are designed to give extra support to the ankles, which allows the fighter to have that extra spring in his step. Low-top shoes do not cushion the ankle, but are lighter and allow greater freedom to the boxer to move around. Boxing shoes are responsible for the footing of a boxer. Footing is a crucial element in a match, and the proper shoe can make the difference between a win and a loss. The proper shoe can give a boxer that extra little energy he needs to win.

Boxing Headgear

Boxing headgear may be the most important piece of boxing equipment. This is because head injuries are so serious and happen so often. It is the number one concern for doctors associated with boxing. All doctors constantly stress the importance of some sort of head protection. It protects the head in two ways. First, there is a double layer of shock absorbing foam designed to limit if not nullify most shots to the head. Also, the headgear distributes the energy of the punch throughout the head, thereby limiting possible serious damage to one particular part of the head. The argument against headgear has always been that it takes away from the vision of the fighter. New headgear however puts that claim to rest. All are now designed with a perfectly open face allowing for maximum peripheral vision. Boxing headgear is a non-negotiable part of boxing. It is an essential piece of boxing equipment, equally important to gloves or bags. Without headgear, boxing would be much more violent and deadly.



Mouth guards are extremely important to the safety of a fighter. These pieces of boxing equipment protect the mouth from any blows it may take. Not only do they protect the teeth, they also shield the lips, gums, and inner cheek.  Without a mouthpiece, there is the potential for serious, and possibly permanent, injury. Boxers get hit in the mouth region relatively frequently, and because they have mouthpieces, they are able to take the punches. If boxers did not wear mouthpieces, they would not have most of the teeth they have now.

Hand wraps

Hand wraps are an important piece of boxing equipment, or any kind of sparring for that matter. They allow a fighter to learn without gloves, while preventing any serious injury to either fighter. Essentially, they cushion every blow. Unlike boxing gloves, these wraps leave your fingers uncovered. With the knuckles covered, the fingers can move freely and this allows for ventilation and easy, quick hand movements. For this reason, wraps are used for sparring, not in matches. Hand wraps are very important because they give the boxer protection while still allowing him the freedom to punch at will. Without these wraps, there would be no full contact sparring because too many people would get injured. These wraps help and in some cases save people.


Double end striking bags

Double end striking bags are very important to the development of any fighter. They are the same size as speed bags, but are attached at both ends. Because the bag is not free swinging, it bounces back towards the fighter, allowing him to train both punching and mobility. These punching bags help a fighter work on timing as well as punch location without ever having to step into the ring. They allow a fighter to focus on a small target, and develop punching consistency. Because of this, this piece of boxing equipment is standard in any gym. Double end striking bags help to train a fighters' overall technique. By allowing the fighter to simultaneously work on all facets of his game, these bags are necessary for any fighter.



Speed bags

Speed bags are essential for any boxing training. They are a constant in any gym or boxing facility. These kinds of punching bags have become famous through champion fighters and their hand speed. One of the most important areas of a boxer's repertoire is his hand speed. If a boxer's hands are slow, he is sure to have problems in the fight. This piece of boxing equipment not only helps develop hand speed, but also punch consistency and timing. Speed bags are important for both boxers and trainers. They are one of the most effective teaching tools available, and have produced tremendous results. Mounted to a speed bag stand, these punching bags are sure to improve your game.

Heavy jump ropes

Heavy jump ropes are a boxer's best friend. Not only do these jump ropes help a boxer with speed and stamina, but they also work other parts of the body. Jump ropes may be the most complete exercise regiment available. There are various areas of the body that a jump rope exercises. Jump ropes help build arms, forearms, shoulders, calves, and quads. There isn't a more complete workout available. Heavy jump ropes, like double end striking bags, help work on a boxer's mobility and agility. These ropes also build stamina as well as teach good footwork. Jump ropes are some of the oldest pieces of sports equipment still in use.

Speed jump ropes

Speed jump ropes are different from other jump ropes. They are much lighter and thinner. They allow the boxer to challenge himself in speed and number of revolutions with the rope. These ropes are usually made of a plastic material and are very durable. They are designed to be used at high rates of speed therefore they are made light and easy to see. They help a fighter increase his jump frequency without losing his rhythm. These ropes are very important pieces of boxing equipment. They help a boxer work on his speed and quickness, while at the same time working their arms and forearms. They are perfect for any boxer.



Match Equipment


All boxing matches take place in the ring, an enclosed area in which the boxers fight. Ordinarily on a raised platform, the ring is surrounded by three ropes supported by posts at each corner. Its floor is padded and covered by canvas for better traction and to protect the head of a boxer in the event of a fall or a knockdown. Sometimes referred to as a squared circle, a boxing ring is actually a square that measures 5.5 to 7.3 m (18 to 24 ft) on each side, depending on the available space. After each round, each fighter returns to a specific corner of the ring, which is diagonally across from the corner of the opponent. The other two corners are called neutral corners.

The name ring is an atavism from when contests were fought in a roughly drawn circle on the ground, the name ring continued with the Jack Broughton rules (1743) specifying a small circle in the center of the fight area where the boxers met at the start of each round. The Pugilistic Society introduced the first square ring in 1838; the ring was specified as 24 feet square and bound by two ropes.


A platform, gives your ring that professional feel. You will need tools and some construction experience. Frames can be made of metal or wood. Metal frames have obvious advantages, but wood frames will cost less, and can be just as strong. The Platform shall be safely constructed, level and free from any obstructing projections and shall extend for at least 46 cm (18 inches) outside the line of the ropes. It shall be fitted with four corner posts, which shall be well padded or otherwise so constructed as to prevent injury to the boxers. The corner pads should be arranged in the following way: In the nearer left-side ring corner facing the President of the Jury- red; in the far left-side corner- white; in the far right-side corner- blue; and in the near right corner- white.


Corner posts are used to attach the ropes, and depending on your design, serve as supports for the platform. Most corner posts are square, but round is acceptable. If you built a metal frame, they should be incorporated into the design of the platform.


The floor of the ring needs be completely covered with canvas or vinyl.


Canvas thickness, is measured by the ounce. 16 oz will last many years, but 18 oz is better. Grommets should be evenly spaced, a maximum 12". Custom designing the canvas with your logo is great, but is expensive.


Essential for every ring, required for safety reasons. Give your ring that final touch with custom designed corner cushions. Most manufactures can make corner cushions with your design.



Practicing Boxing Techniques



Good boxers keep in top physical condition and spend many hours practicing boxing skills. They do much roadwork—that is, running and jogging—to develop their endurance. They skip rope to improve their footwork, and they practice their punching ability on punching bags. When boxers are training for a bout, they practice under fight conditions by boxing with sparring partners.

Here, we will provide you with the fundamentals of practicing boxing-basic techniques and helpful hints to improve your skills and uplift your spirit.


We suggest that you go through all the tips below in order.

  1. Hand Wraps
  2. Securing Your Stance
  3. Punching Techniques
    1. The Jab
    2. The Straight-Right
    3. The Hook
    4. The Uppercut
  4. Punching the Heavy Bag
  5. Speed Bag Techniques
  6. Hitting a Double End Striking Bag








Boxing Basics
Hand Wraps


This instruction is demonstrated using a Wrapplicator, however, the basic principles for wrapping one's hand are the same regardless of whether one uses a Wrapplicator. If not using a Wrapplicator, start with Step 2.


Step 1:
Hold the Wrapplicator by the handle and look at the clockwise indicator on the label, Figure 1. If the wrap is wound clockwise on the Wrapplicator, as it is in Figure 1, you will wrap your right hand first. If the wrap is wound counter-clockwise, start with your left hand. Remove the black elastic band and set aside.


Step 2:
Place the thumb loop around your right thumb and start with the hand wrap across the back of your hand, Figure 2.


Step 3:
Wrap a few times around your wrist, Figure 3, and then at least once around your thumb, Figure 4. The hand wrap should feel snug around your wrist and hand, not tight.



Boxing Basics
Hand Wraps


Return to Steps 1-3


Step 4:
Now wrap your knuckles a few times keeping the fingers of your right hand spread apart, Figure 5. With the remaining hand wrap, alternate wrapping your wrist once or twice and then your knuckles once or twice, Figure 6.


Step 5:
Periodically, make a fist to make sure you have not wrapped your hand too tight. Finish wrapping around your wrist and secure the hand wrap with the Velcro strap, Figures 7 & 8.








Securing Your Stance


The following instructions are for right-handed boxers. Left-handed boxers should reverse their hands and feet.


Step 1:
Stand with your feet shoulder width apart.


Step 2:
Move your left foot towards your right foot so that your left toes meet your right toes at an angle. This may seem difficult at first. Your feet may end up being staggered, which could cause you to forget about keeping your hips forward. With practice, this stance will feel more and more natural.


Step 3:
With your left foot, step forward approximately twelve to fifteen inches. The toes of your left (front) foot should be pointed between 12 and 2 o'clock. Raise the heel of your right (back) foot slightly off the floor. Your right toes should also be pointed between 12 and 2.



Step 4:
Check your stance. Your hips should be level, even though your feet are a bit staggered. Always keep your hips directly under your shoulders and directly over a midpoint between your feet. Your body should always work as a solid unit.


Step 5:
Raise your left hand to cheek level. Your palm should be facing your face. When making a fist, close your hand so that the tips of your fingers touch your palms. Rest your thumb against the knuckle of your middle finger.


Step 6:
Carry your right hand at chin level, again with your palm facing you. Make sure that you do not bring your shoulders back up around your ears.


Some things to remember:
When in your stance, keep the heel of your back foot slightly off the floor. Distribute your weight equally between both feet. Do not tip forward onto the balls of your feet. If you feel yourself doing this, distribute more of your weight down through your arches and heels. Make sure to keep your elbows in, pressed against your body. Always remember to breathe deeply—from your diaphragm.



Punching Techniques: The Jab


This punch has many purposes:

  • Increase the distance between you and your opponent.
  • Use it to set up other punches and punch combinations.
  • Or, use the jab simply as a solid blow to your opponent's face.

Step 1:
(The jab is always thrown with your forward hand) Shift most of your weight onto your right (back) leg. This assists in counterbalancing your body when you throw the punch.


Step 2:
Fully extend your arm. Just before your fist/glove strikes the target, rotate your hand so that your thumb is facing the floor. Remember to keep your wrists straight to avoid injury. Also, keep your elbow slightly flexed at the point of impact (otherwise, you might hyperextend it).


Step 3:
Return your arm back to your body. Remember, the punch always remains on one plane-throw and retract your punch without weaving up or down or side to side.


Step 4:
Do not allow your shoulders to lead. This may cause you to bend at the waist when making your punch. Keep your shoulders back.


Step 5:
When throwing your jab, keep your muscles slightly tensed. Anchor your punch by contracting your back and butt muscles.

It is important that the movement of your feet coincides with the movement and placement of your punch. Properly stepping with the jab will ensure that your punch is effective.


Some things to remember:
When punching with your left hand, step forward with your left foot. As your foot contacts the floor, your arm should reach its full extension. (Remember to keep your elbow flexed when throwing this punch.)

At this point, your weight is primarily distributed to your right leg. Now, you have invaded your opponent's space and delivered a punch to their face.

After completing the punch, return your arm to its position level with your left cheek. Bring your rear foot up so that your feet are in their correct, original stance, slightly more than shoulder width apart.



Punching Techniques: The Straight-Right


Use the straight right after you have set up an opening with your jab.


Step 1:
After establishing your stance, shift your weight to your left leg. Pivot your right (rear) foot so that your toes are pointing forward, while simultaneously delivering a right punch. Remember to push against the floor with your rear foot. (At the very last moment, rotate your fist so that your thumb is facing the floor.)


Step 2:
Pull your hand back on the same plane the punch was thrown. Return your rear foot to its original position-toes pointing between 12 and 2 o'clock.



Punching Techniques: The Hook


Unlike the other punches, the hook is a bent-arm punch. The power of this punch is generated by a move known as a body whirl. In order to perfect this punch, try to master each movement one step at a time before going on to the next step.


Step 1: The Body Whirl
Stand with your feet shoulder width apart. Your weight should be equally distributed between your feet. Bring your fists together and hold them against your chest (with palms facing your chest).


Step 2:
Shift your weight to your right leg while simultaneously rotating your body to the right. Pivot on the ball of your left foot so that your toes end up pointing toward your right foot. You will notice that this movement causes your arms to move along with it. Stop rotating when your elbow reaches about the midpoint in front of you.


Step 3:
Try this move again with a slight variation. Shift your weight to the right foot. Pivot on the ball of you left foot until your toes point toward your right foot. Immediately, snap your left arm up into a ninety-degree angle. Your left fist should stop at a midpoint in front of you.

This is called a lateral punch. The power of the hook comes from the momentum of your body rotating and the resistance of your foot pushing off of the floor. At this point, the left side of your torso should be in line with the direction of your punch.


Step 4:
Return your left foot back to its original position and bring your left fist back to its cheek level position.


Some things to remember:
The Right hook and left hook are virtually the same. The only difference is that you rotate your body in opposite directions.



Punching Techniques: The Uppercut


Step 1:
To throw a right uppercut, start in the classic boxing stance with the back (right) knee bent. Lower the right shoulder to drop the right side of the body in a semi-crouch position. Remember to keep the left fist up by the chin to protect the head. 


Step 2:
Now as you rotate the hips forward, push the ball of the back foot, (the right foot), and punch the right fist up towards the target. The right side of the back and the right shoulder will follow through with the rotation of the hips. 


Step 3:
The hips finish being squared to the front. The right arm always stays close to the body and moves upward in a semi-circle. For the most effective and powerful punch, keep the elbow bent at a right angle during the delivery and follow through.


Step 4:
Uppercuts to the body will cause the opponent's body to fall forward. Step away slightly and complete the combination with another uppercut to the head.


Some things to remember:
When practicing this punch stay close to the target. If the punch is thrown from the outside, the opponent will be able to easily detect that the punch is coming and counter with an effective straight punch. An uppercut from the outside also loses some of its power because the arm is no longer bent at the elbow and cannot effectively transfer the total body's force in the upward movement.



Punching the Heavy Bag


Step 1:
After wrapping your hands, put on a suitable pair of bag gloves. Gloves will help absorb the shock of your punches and protect your hands from abrasion.


Step 2:
Extend your arm so that your glove touches the heavy bag. Determine your reach or your punching distance. Execute a jab. As the arm is extended the glove should be in tight contact with the bag. Repeat a few times to become comfortable with the feel.

Remember the following when striking the heavy bag:

  • Clench your fists.
  • Make sure your wrists are straight.
  • Keep your elbows slightly flexed
  • Turn with your shoulders
  • Twist at the waist
  • Push with your hips and toes
  • Keep your knees bent

Step 3:
Focus and hit in the center of the bag. Each time you throw a punch, exhale. This will help regulate your breathing and give you some extra mmphh! Many athletes believe that exhaling makes it less likely to get your wind knocked out.


Step 4:
Watch as the bag moves away and hit it directly and quickly as it returns to you. Mix up the straight punches, a few jabs and then a straight right. Always try to punch through the heavy bag, rather than at it.


Step 5:
Next, add movement and more power. Step into the punches and step out. The glove hand moves forward as the front foot moves forward. The glove returns back to the shoulder as the back foot returns back.


Step 6:
Now have a plan and mix it up a bit. Move around, slip and throw a few jabs to determine your reach and target area. Move in closer to the bag and throw hooks and uppercuts.



Speed Bag Techniques


The purpose of a speed bag is to improve hand-eye coordination. When using the speed bag, it is important to wear hand wraps or bag gloves to protect your hands.


Step 1:
Make sure that the positioning of the speed bag is adjusted for your height. The bottom of the bag should be level with the bottom of your chin. Usually, speed bag platforms are easily adjustable. Address the speed bag square with the body, both fists up and in front of the face. This is the one time you do not have to be in the boxer's stance.


Step 2:
To perform a backhand punch, hit the lower part of the striking bag with the side of your fist (near your little finger).


Step 3:
The bag will swing back, hit the backboard, come forward, hit the backboard, swing back, and hit the backboard. When the bag comes forward again, strike it with a backhand or straight punch. This may seem tricky at first, but be patient and eventually, you will master the rhythm.


Step 4:
Repeat striking the bag with the PUNCH-1-2-3 rhythm, keeping both hands up by the face. Work with one fist, then the other, taking the arm through a circular motion. As you punch faster tighten up this circular range of motion that the arm goes through. practice hitting the bag with your other hand. Once you feel comfortable,


Step 5:
The most important thing is to be patient. When first starting, the speed bag will probably go all over the place. If it goes in circles, try hitting it softer. If it is barely moving, simply strike it harder. Eventually, you will get a feel for the bag and be able to speed up your punches and alternate between hands. It's all a matter of timing.


Some things to remember:
If the bag is moving too fast, try a larger-sized bag or let some air out of the bladder to slow it down.



Hitting a Double-End Striking Bag


There is an entirely different rhythm to hitting the double-end bag, than any other punching bags. Heavy bags don't punch back, double-end bags do! You learn to bob and weave, slip and duck, keep your hands up and move your head. When you strike the double-end bag, it will react by moving quickly away, then rebound back right at you.

You can either wear your boxing gloves, striking mitts or hand wraps when hitting the double-end striking bag. Boxing gloves give a larger contact surface and initially may be a better choice. Work towards using just hand wraps or striking mitts.


Step 1:
Address the bag in your boxing stance, hands up and get ready to move. Stay light on your feet, the weight centered more towards the front of the feet.


Step 2:
Strike the bag and slip out of the way of the rebound. You do not have to strike with a lot of power, work on technique. Try to strike in the center of the bag at first, making the bag move directly back and straight at you. Move out of the way and then strike the bag again. Practice your slips, add footwork, move in and out, circle the bag, and mix up the punches.








Modern boxing regulations are based upon the 12 rules set out by British boxing officials in the mid-19th century. These rules became known as the Marquess of Queensberry Rules, named for the 8th Marquess of Queensberry, John Sholto Douglas, who sponsored and published them. In addition to in-the-ring rules, modern boxing also has specific regulations regarding eligibility for the fighters themselves. Sanctioning bodies can bar boxers from competing in a certain jurisdiction for medical reasons or for violating specific rules or codes of conduct.

The modern rules for professional and amateur bouts differ, but both types of contests are divided into time periods, called rounds. In professional bouts each round lasts three minutes; in amateur bouts, two minutes. A one-minute rest period between rounds is standard. Amateur contests consist of three rounds; professional bouts may consist of up to 12 rounds. A bell is usually sounded by a timekeeper to begin and end each round.


This section describes the boxing rules that are followed in the United States and in international and Olympic games competitions. The boxing rules differ somewhat between amateur and professional boxing. The chief differences are noted in the discussion.

Weight classes. Boxers compete in classes, or divisions, based on their weight. To fight in a particular class, a boxer may not weigh more than the maximum for that class. The tables in this article give the weight range in each class for professionals and amateurs.

The ring is the area inside the ropes. At least three ropes, attached to posts near each corner, establish the dimensions of the ring. The ring may measure from 16 to 20 feet square (4.9 to 6 meters) for amateur bouts, or 16 to 24 square feet (4.9 to 7.3 meters) for professional bouts. The ring floor stands 3 to 4 feet (0.9 to 1.2 meters) higher than the arena floor, and has a canvas covering stretched over felt or foam rubber. For professional championship fights, the boxers may select the ring size with the local boxing commission's approval.

Equipment. A boxer's hands are wrapped in soft cloth bandages. Over the bandages, he wears padded leather gloves. The gloves soften his punches and so help protect his hands as well as his opponent from injury. Some U.S. states require the use of thumb less gloves to reduce potential eye injuries. Boxing gloves weigh from 6 to 12 ounces (170 to 340 grams).

Boxers wear trunks and lightweight shoes. A mouthpiece of hard rubber protects the teeth, and a plastic cup protects the groin area. Amateurs and professionals wear a protective leather helmet when they are training. Amateurs may also wear a helmet in competition, though professionals do not. The helmet covers the back and sides of the head and the ears.

Time periods of a boxing match are called rounds. Each round lasts two or three minutes in amateur matches. Rounds in major professional bouts last three minutes. In all matches, there is a one-minute rest period between rounds. A professional bout may be scheduled for 4 to 15 rounds. Most professional championships are 12 rounds. Amateur fights, including championships, are scheduled for either 3 three-minute rounds or 5 two-minute rounds.

Fight officials. During a round, the referee is the only person in the ring besides the boxers. He sees that the fighters obey the rules. The referee warns a boxer who violates a rule. He may disqualify a fighter for committing a serious violation or for committing too many violations.

Two or three judges sit at ringside and score most fights. However, amateur championship fights require five judges. The timekeeper keeps track of the time and sounds a bell to signal the beginning and end of each round. This person also begins the knockdown count that the referee picks up and continues. An official ring physician is present at every bout to provide medical treatment and also to advise the referee how serious an injured fighter's condition may be.

Scoring a fight. A boxer wins a fight by (1) a knockout, (2) a technical knockout, (3) a decision, or (4) a disqualification. Sometimes, a professional bout may end in a draw, with neither fighter declared the winner. Amateur fights cannot end in a draw. In a close bout, the amateur who showed better style or committed fewer violations may win.

A knockout, or KO, occurs when a boxer is knocked down and does not get up within 10 seconds, as counted by the referee. In some U.S. states, if a round ends while a fighter is down but before 10 seconds are up, the fighter is "saved by the bell." But in most states, the count continues after the bell until the fighter either stands up or is counted out. In most states, the count stops at the bell that ends the last scheduled round.

A technical knockout, or TKO, occurs when a boxer is judged physically unable to continue fighting. Such a judgment may be made by the referee, the official ring physician, the fighter himself, or the fighter's assistants.

A decision results when two boxers fight the scheduled number of rounds without a knockout or a technical knockout. In most parts of the United States, three ringside judges, or the referee and two ringside judges, then decide the winner. In professional bouts, the officials may declare the fight a draw. A decision may be unanimous, with all three officials agreeing on the winner. Or a decision may be split, with the victory going to the boxer judged the winner by two of the three officials. In a majority decision, two of the officials judge a boxer to be the winner of the fight, with the third official scoring the bout a draw. In Olympic competition, the referee has no vote, and five judges decide the winner.

A decision is based on either the round or point system of scoring. Some states in the United States use the round system for professional bouts. In this system, the referee and the judges decide individually after every round which fighter won that round or whether it was a draw. At the end of the bout, each official votes for the fighter he has awarded the most rounds.

States that do not use the round system for decisions in professional fights use some form of the point system. In a point system, the referee and the judges separately award each fighter a number of points after every round based on his performance. At the end of the fight, each official adds up all the points he has given to each boxer. The boxer scored as the winner by two of the officials wins the bout. Some states use a 5-point or 10-point must system. In this system, each official gives the boxer he considers to be the round's winner 5 or 10 points and the loser fewer points. If an official decides the round is a draw, each boxer gets 5 or 10 points.

All decisions in U.S. and international amateur fights are based on the 20-point-must system. Each official awards the winner of a round 20 points. The loser receives 19 points or fewer, depending on how the officials judged his performance. If the round is judged even, each fighter gets 20 points.

Fight rules. A boxer may not hit below the belt, in the back of the head, or strike an opponent who is down, even to one knee. Such actions are called fouls. Other fouls include kicking, tripping, wrestling, excessive holding, hitting an opponent's eye with the thumb of the glove, hitting with the forearm or the inside of the glove, butting with the head, or using the elbows. A boxer who commits a foul is warned by the referee and may lose points. Too many fouls may result in disqualification.

After a fighter is knocked down, his opponent must immediately go to the farthest neutral corner—one of the two corners not occupied by either boxer between rounds. The referee then begins the count. If the fallen boxer rises, the count is ended. In amateur and some professional bouts, however, a fallen boxer must take a mandatory eight-count. Under this rule, fighting may not resume after a knockdown until the referee has counted to eight, even if the fallen boxer rises immediately. If a boxer in an amateur fight is knocked down three times in one round, his opponent wins the match on a TKO. This rule also applies to many professional bouts.



Knockout / Count-out

When a boxer is knocked to the floor, the opponent is sent to a neutral corner by the referee. The referee will count out loud up to ten. If the boxer who has been knocked down does not get up, a knockout is declared and the opponent wins.

There may also be a standing count in amateur boxing. If a boxer remains upright, the referee may begin the count for the knockout if the boxer looks unable to continue. This rule is in place as a safety measure for boxers.

The term knockout does not have to mean literally knocked unconscious.


The winner may be decided by who has landed the most fair punches, or by points awarded by judges.

In both amateur and professional bouts, there are a number of judges by the ring (the number can vary according to the organisers, often five), who will use computer equipment to judge when a fair punch has been landed. The winner is the boxer who has landed the most fair punches.

In amateur boxing the winner of a round gets 20 points, and the opponent proportionately fewer. if the boxers have fought an equal round, they both get 20 points.

Auxilary points (three to one full point) are awarded for scoring punches. They can also be awarded at the end of a contest for attack, defence, leading off, or style.

In most professional matches, points are awarded up to 10 for a round. In both amateur and professional boxing, draws are permitted if both boxers have scored equally.


A bout may be stopped before time for several reasons.

1.      Disqualification

2.      Retirement

3.      Stoppage by the referee


If a boxer persistently breaks any of the following rules, they will first be given a warning, with loss of points, then disqualified after three warnings. The opponent would win automatically.

·        Punching outside target areas - below the belt, back of the neck, kidneys.

·        Pivot or backhanded hits

·        Hitting with the side of the hand, wrist, elbow, head, inside of the glove

·        Excessive bodily contact

·        Repeatedly ducking below opponent's waistline

·        Failing to step back from a clinch when ordered to 'break'

·        hitting on the break

·        Deliberately punching an opponent when they are on the floor or falling

·        Holding onto the ropes for defence or attack (injuries do not count)

In addition, the referee may rule anything as a foul that is deemed to be outside the rules.



In this case, this does not mean literally the end of the career, but if the opponent or their team feels they are unable or unwilling to continue, they can retire from the bout. The opponent would automatically win.

Stoppages by the referee

The referee may stop the contest if they decide that one or both boxers are unable to continue.


There is a referee, five judges (three in professional boxing), and a timekeeper. This can vary slightly, but there will always be a referee. There may also be 'seconds' for the boxers, to assist the boxers with water, towels and medical aid, and so on.


The main differences are in the Rules as well as in the Objectives of the two sports, with different safety standards and records. Because of this distinction, unlike in other sports, athletes as well as referees and judges of professional boxing are not permitted to participate in amateur and Olympic boxing events. The following are a few examples of the differences between amateur and professional boxing. It is recognized that while the rules for amateur boxing are the same all over the world, rules for professional boxing can vary significantly, and in a few countries or states may have now equalled or even exceeded safety standards of amateur boxing in some instances. The purpose of this web page is to provide factual information in the light of much confusion and misconception. No bias against or preference for a particular sport is expressed, implied, or intended.






Are geared to protect the health and safety of the athlete. Uniform in all 190 AIBA affiliated countries.

Rules vary from country to country, sometimes even within one country.

Uniform rules mean uniform safety standards.


4 rounds (3 rounds for females) of 2 minutes each. Shorter rounds for novices and boxers under 17.

From 4 rounds of 3 minutes up to 12 rounds of 3 minutes each. Two- minute rounds for females.

Longer bouts are said to increase the risk of injury. For that reason, professional boxing no longer has 15 round fights.


10 oz. for competitions, specially designed to cushion the impact. White area denotes striking surface. Must have AIBA approved label.

6, 8, and 10 oz. gloves,depending on jurisdiction.

Not only the weight, but also the design and material of gloves are factors.


Compulsory for all competitions since 1971 in Canada, since 1984 world-wide.


Headguards reduce cuts by 90 %, ear lobe injury by 100 %.

Singlets (Tops)

Mandatory for males and females.

Prohibited for males.

Tops prevent rope burns, keep gloves cleaner.

Vaseline, Grease



Possible eye / vision irritant. Said to prevent "leather-burn."

Standing Eight-Count

Given to a boxer in difficulty. After 3 eight-counts in a round or 4 in total, the bout is stopped.

Usually does not exist.

Purpose is to protect the boxer before getting hurt.

Duties of Referee

First priority is to protect the boxers, and to enforce the rules in the ring. The referee does not keep score.

To enforce the prevailing rules. In some jurisdictions, the referee keeps score. In recent years, actions of referees to stop the fight when a boxer is injured or helpless have been exemplary.

The role and actions of the referee are important in preventing serious injuries.


The bout is stopped when there is much bleeding, or cuts, swelling around the eye.

The bout is not stopped unless the injured boxer is unable to continue (TKO).

Blood and swelling around the eyes impair vision and make it hard to defend against blows.

RSC - Outclassed

If a boxer is overmatched, and has difficulty defending against a far superior opponent, the referee stops the contest.

No such rule.

Mismatches can be a cause of injuries, and while rare, can happen in both sports, in spite of rules and all efforts to prevent or end them.

Novice Class

Boxers who have competed in 10 events or less are in the Novice class, and can compete only against other Novices.

No such rule.

This rule seeks to prevent mismatches and to make bouts more even and fair.


There are 21 fouls (forbidden, unfair or dangerous tactics) which lead to warnings and point penalties if committed. Disqualification after 3 warnings.

Some tactics considered fouls in amateur boxing are permitted in professional boxing.

Clean boxing without fouls makes the sport safer.


To win on points by landing more correct scoring blows on the opponent's target area. Knock-downs do not result in extra points. Knock-outs are accidental, and not an objective.

For point decisions, agressiveness, knock-downs, injuring ("marking") the opponent, can also count. KO's are an objective, as a high knock-out record can lead to higher earnings.

Acute knock-outs are concussions. Less than 1 % of amateur bouts end in knock-outs. Over 25 % of pro fights end in KO's, over 50 % in KO's or TKO's.









Success in any fitness program is an elusive moving target. There are many exercise devotees out there who continuously take aim. However, few consistently achieve a solid hit, when it comes to their fitness goals. Success demands focus, balance, consistency and discipline. It also requires the ability and dedication to continuously overcome obstacles.

Endurance athletes such as runners, cyclists, kayakers and others engaged in outdoor exercise regimens recognize winter as one of these obstacles. Icy roads, snow covered trails, freezing temperatures and reduced hours of sunshine all make regular outdoor workouts dicey.

However, for many of these athletes, tapering off simply is not in their creed. They have worked too hard to watch their fitness levels slip away. They need an alternative that is both efficient and effective time in improving their fitness levels. It must also be challenging, motivating, provide variety and be convenient. In other words, it must meet the following criteria:

·        Intensity. It must challenge both the aerobic and anaerobic systems.

·        Strength gain. It must improve overall body strength.

·        Injury free. It must provide intensity without battering muscles and joints.

·        Calorie burn. It must help burn off any extra fat to help increase/maintain leanness.

·        Variety. It must be challenging and non-boring.

·        Mental toughness. It must help the athlete or fitness devotee learn to cope with difficult challenges in their primary activity.

Fitness Boxing is a whole body workout that meets the above criteria and more.

It takes the best aspects of workouts used by some of the world’s most finely conditioned athletes, boxers. It combines them into a fitness program that is safe for the mainstream exercise devotee. In other words, with Fitness Boxing, you train like a boxer in everything but full contact sparring. (That aspect of boxing is left to professional boxing coaches in the relative safety of a standard boxing ring.)

Fitness Boxing is definitely challenging. It works most of the human body’s physiological systems. The musculo-skeletal system becomes stronger through specialized resistance exercises and boxing specific equipment drills. The cardio-respiratory and vascular systems become more efficient through workouts that are more than 60% anaerobic. The central nervous system is trained to respond faster and more efficiently to punching combination drills.

Intensity is the trademark of a Fitness Boxing workout. As indicated above, it is more than 60% anaerobic. Many of the drills are made up of two or three minute rounds, with one-minute recovery periods. You push through your current lactate threshold and improve it during the round, or anaerobic interval, by working at 85-90% of your maximum heart rateDuring the one-minute rest period, you learn to more efficiently recover your oxygen debt while simultaneously stretching and reviewing proper technique.

Strength gain is a natural byproduct of the Fitness Boxing workout. Boxers work with weights, specialized boxing equipment and plyometric devices in a manner that maximizes calorie burn to increase lean muscle mass. The Fitness Boxing workout focuses on improving speed, strength, explosiveness and lactate threshold management while simultaneously keeping body fat at minimal levels.

Remaining injury free while improving total body fitness is one of the major benefits of a Fitness Boxing program. As a cross training alternative, it provides a break in routine and adds variety to your overall training program. It distributes the load of training across various body parts. For endurance athletes who do a lot of running, this means a break from pounding your knee and ankle joints, while still getting an intense training session.

Mental toughness comes from learning to cope with the demands of a challenging workout. The more you work through a series of rounds that push you into your anaerobic zone, the better you will deal with intense endurance training or other demanding exercise routines.

So, Fitness Boxing offers all these great cross training benefits. What does a typical workout look like?

Most formal classes at boxing gyms or health clubs are 60 minutes in length. A typical session is broken down into several carefully designed components to ensure a total body workout.



Mental Preparation

Boxing is perhaps the most physically challenging sport of all. The boxer requires both upper and lower body strength in addition to unprecedented levels of cardiovascular endurance. They must stand up to the punishment inflicted by an equally conditioned opponent. To further complicate things, the boxer must train his mind to be as tough as his body…

Boxing is not only about getting into great shape and mastering the tools of the sweet science. An equally important aspect of the fight game is having the mental fortitude to succeed inside the ring. Boxing is unique from other sports, as a fighter is alone inside the ring. Even legendary trainers such as Eddie Futch and Angelo Dundee were forced to exit the ring during rounds. To be successful, you must not only be strong physically, but mentally as well.

Regardless of your skill and physical condition, the time will come when you are tired inside the ring. You will be hurt or injured, yet forced to continue fighting. Boxing is not like other sports where you can look to the referee to call timeout. Instead, you must fight until the bell rings. You have the option to quit, but real fighters never will. Rather, real fighters fight regardless of the circumstances they face inside the ring.

The mind is a powerful tool that some never learns to control. Consider the following… all boxers understand the importance of running, watching their diet, and training hard in the gym. Why then, are some fighters in amazing shape while others only mediocre? Why do some fighters have difficulties making weight, while others weigh in perfectly every time? The answers lies within the mental discipline of the fighter. It is easy to cheat on your diet and easy to skip your run; boxing is not an easy sport.

A day in the life of a fighter consists of an early wakeup followed by a morning session of running. I typically wake up by 5:30 and start running by 6. While most people sleep soundly, we are out running the streets. Our roadwork consists of hills, sprints, and torturous intervals. The morning session is far from enjoyable, yet because of its importance, we commit ourselves to it. There will be days when you are tired, perhaps you stayed up late, perhaps it is raining outside, or the wind is blowing feverishly in the winter. Boxing is different from other team sports, as many of the decisions must be made on your own.

Your coach is not there at 5:30 in the morning, reminding you to wake up and hit the roads. It is easy to hit the snooze button on your alarm and drift back to the dream that was abruptly halted by the annoying buzz. So what makes you decide to run while others may choose to sleep? The decision often comes from deep inside. The man who wakes to run, runs not to look nice on the beach, rather he runs to inch himself closer towards victory in the ring. He may be preparing for a regional amateur tournament, perhaps the nationals, or even a professional world title. At some point, you must decide on your own, how bad you want to win.

There will always be those that sleep and those that wake. There will always be those that hang out at the gym and those that train until the lights go out. We are all going to have those days when we’d rather not train. On our way to the gym, we consider driving past, yet we stop and turn towards the gym parking lot. Mentally, we must be strong if we are to succeed in this sport. No one can make the decision for us to train. The decision must be made at the individual level. The best trainers in the world are only as good as the students they train. They can provide motivation and advice, but ultimately, the decision still rests in the hands of the fighter.

When you decide in your heart, that you want to succeed inside the ring, your mind will take over. You begin to make boxing your sole purpose in life. You have to eat, sleep, and dream boxing to be the best. If you don’t, rest assured that someone else will. This is not a sport you play. This is a sport where you can get hurt. Boxing is a sport for warriors, those that are strong both mentally and physically. We will all face fear and doubt, but with dedicated training and experience we learn to quell these feelings.

Consider the wait in the locker room before the bout. You are often left to yourself, while your trainer works with other fighters from the team. You try to envision the fight in your head. There are times when you doubt yourself, even question your conditioning. Thoughts race through your head but you remain calm showing no visible expression. You must hide your concern from the fighters around you. You shadow box to loosen the tightness fashioned from your nerves. When fight time comes, these thoughts quickly vanish. You rely on your training and fight your heart out. Through experience, you learn to overcome these nervous, anxious feelings. You realize that you are not alone, rather one of many who have faced such feelings.

The wait in the locker room is enough to break the average man. Most men have never been involved in an actual one-on-one fight. Most have never been punched in the face. For this reason, most cannot comprehend the feeling of sitting and waiting to do battle with another man, whose soul purpose is to knock you out. He has sweat and bled in the gym for one reason, to hand you defeat. You are on your own and must face this challenge alone. Your friends and family can only watch from outside the ring.

The mind can play tricks on you. It can convince you to doubt yourself and your training. For this reason, you must train the mind to work for you, not against. You must use your mind to give you confidence. The only way to achieve this state of mind is through experience and hard work. Experience comes from actual competition. You must fight and continue to learn.

If you lose or get knocked down, you must make the decision to get back up and fight. When a boxer loses, many are quick to call them bums or over the hill. These people don’t realize that boxing is just like any other sport. It takes time to learn and master the techniques. You must learn from your losses and live to fight another day. Whether or not you succeed is your decision. No one can instill the mental toughness and work ethic required to be a champion. Rather you must dig down, deep within yourself and find these qualities on your own.

Train hard and believe in yourself. Through hard work, you gain confidence in your training. Boxing is a sport that does not involve luck; rather boxing is a sport that rewards those that work hard and overcome obstacles.



 Warming Up


What Constitutes A Warm-Up:

A warm-up can be defined as a variety of activities, used to bridge the transition gap between rest and exercise. A typical warm-up usually involves a combination of light exercises and stretching, which gradually increase the level of activity until the specific intensity is reached. Warm-ups can be directly related to the session (use of sporting movements) or indirectly related (general movements). The primary purpose of a warm up is to increase body temperature and heart rate.

Benefits Of A Warm-up To Boxing:

The increase in body temperature resulting from a warm-up has been linked to improved performance. Higher temperatures accelerate the rate of bodily processes. It speeds up both enzymatic and metabolic reactions. This improves metabolic adjustments to heavy work by causing an increase in energy release.

Another factor, which increases the rate of the metabolic processes, is the increase in heart rate that accompanies a warm-up. This increase helps prepare the cardiovascular system for work.

Another effect of an increased temperature and heart rate is facilitated nerve transmission. An increased velocity of nerve conduction helps to facilitate body movement. It also leads to an increase in the speed of muscle contraction and relaxation. This allows a more efficient cycle of muscle contraction/relaxation. For example, when performing a punch, while the triceps contracts, the biceps relax. However when returning the punching hand back to its original position, it is the biceps that contract, while the triceps relax. Making this cycle more efficient leads to less energy waste.

An increased body temperature also results in an increased muscle temperature. This could improve boxing performance by increasing the rate and force of muscle contraction and contractile mechanical efficiency. The resulting decrease in muscle tension allows for an enhanced ability of connective tissue to elongate, as well as a greater economy of movement.

The combination of increased body and muscle temperature, and an increased heart rate, leads to an increase of blood flow to skeletal tissues. This impacts boxing performance in its aerobic portion, by improving the efficiency of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide removal.

There is an enhanced dissociation of oxygen from red blood cells, (hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily at higher temperatures), and a greater number of capillaries opened in muscle. This facilitates oxygen delivery by the muscles, resulting in a lower oxygen deficit at the onset of exercise. The warm-up also facilitates the removal and breakdown of anaerobic by-products.

Lastly, there are also psychological benefits, including increased arousal and the focusing of the athlete’s attention to the task, creating the correct mindset

Proper warm-ups are extremely important for sports requiring short duration, high intensity work bursts such as sprinting and jumping. The improvements in the nervous system are especially helpful for athletes involved in sports that demand high levels of complete body movement.

Important Factors When Designing A Specific Warm-up:

There are several important factors to consider when designing a proper warm-up. Research by D. Franks brought to light the following points:

·        Athletes engaged in short explosive sports benefit most from warm-ups. In trained athletes direct warm-ups are most beneficial.

·        Progressive or endurance type sports do not benefit from intense direct warming up, as fatigue may actually decrease performance. Moderate indirect warm-ups however can aid performance.

·        Intense indirect warm-ups interfere in performance through fatigue and are detrimental to skilled sports.

Designing The Warm-up:

With these points in mind how do you go about designing a beneficial warm-up?

A sport specific warm-up can be done in 3 stages:

1. General warm-up: joint rotations and aerobic activity

2. Stretching: static stretches and dynamic stretches

3. Sport specific activity: mimicking sporting activity

General Warm-Up - Joint rotations are performed first to facilitate joint movement by lubricating the entire joint with synovial fluid. This permits the functional movement about to follow.

The aerobic activity is used to increase the cardiac output and blood flow to skeletal muscles. Aerobic activity will help to reduce the risk of injury from stretching. Performing a general warm-up before stretching minimizes structural weakening, and increases the extensibility of connective tissue (warmer muscles are more elastic).

Stretching - Contrary to popular belief, stretching is not an effective warm-up, but is used as part of the process. The use of static stretching increases the range of movement of the major joints and muscles involved during the training session. Static stretching (stretching to farthest point and holding) is the safest method of stretching and has little expenditure of energy. However it does suffer from a lack of specificity and does not enhance coordination or prepare you for dynamic movements. "There is a low relationship between static flexibility and dynamic flexibility. Since sport movement is typically dynamic in nature, it appears the athletes would be best served by incorporating dynamic movements into their warm-up" (Shawn Kuster), meaning that if performed alone, static stretching could actually impair performance. Static stretches are performed before dynamic movements, to give the muscles and tendons time to adapt.

Dynamic stretching is then used to reach the maximum range of movement. Dynamic stretches involve controlled movements, such as walking lunges, trunk rotations and arm swings.

Sport Specific Movements - The use of a sport specific activity is done for two main reasons. First, stretches do almost nothing to increase temperature or blood flow. The sport specific activity increases the temperature and heart rate that have been lost as a result of stretching. This activity incorporates specific muscle groups and patterns, utilizing movement facilitation.


A proper cool down is also important. A cool-down is used to gradually return heart rate and blood pressure to normal after exercise. The rhythmic contractions of the large muscles help return blood to the heart (large amounts of blood pumped to extremities during exercise). Also, a proper cool-down minimizes muscle soreness. Muscular soreness results from cellular micro trauma, caused by either, torn or damaged tissue, or by metabolic accumulation.

A cool-down is especially important after high intensity exercise with an anaerobic content, such as boxing. Anaerobic exercise results in lactic acid build up in the bloodstream and muscles and a cool-down helps remove these products.

The cool-down consists of 2 parts:

Sport Specific Activity - Gradually reduces heart rate and blood flow, as well as removing metabolic by-products. "An active type of recovery is the best way of enhancing lactate removal after exercise" (Gupta 1996).

Static Stretching - Completes the reduction of heart rate and metabolic by-products. Also induces muscular relaxation via the firing of the golgi tendon organs.

Example of a Boxing Specific Warm-Up and Cool-Down:

General Warm-Up - Joint rotations: Fingers, wrists, elbows, shoulders, neck, waist, hips, legs, knees, ankles, toes. Perform slow circular movements (clock-wise and anti clock-wise) until joint moves smoothly.

Aerobic Activity - This should involve at least 5 minutes of activity. A good example is skipping rope.

Stretching - Static stretching should be held for only 5-10 seconds per stretch (you are only warming up, not trying to develop flexibility), and should progress from your head downwards. Neck, shoulders, upper back, chest, triceps, biceps, forearms, abdominals, lower back, sides, hips/glutes, groin, quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and feet.

Dynamic stretches should be performed with as many sets as it takes to reach maximum range of motion in any given direction.

These could include: Neck turns (up and down, left and right), arm twirls (forwards and backwards, as well as inwards and outwards), trunk twists (left and right), waist bends (in all directions), leg swings (forward, backward and across body) and ankle bounces.

Specific Warm-Up - The specific warm-up can start with some basic footwork patterns, before progressing to agility drills (lateral jumps, burpees etc), and finally a few rounds of shadow boxing.


Aerobic Activity - Skipping

Stretching - Static stretches, this time held for 15-30 seconds to override the stretch reflex and innervate the Golgi tendon organs.






Competitive boxers are among the most fit of all athletes in sports today. The training routine for boxing is often long and strenuous. It is common to undergo intense morning roadwork followed by an evening filled with sparring and other boxing specific exercises and drills. As a fighter, you must train to be the best. You can count on your opponents to be working equally as hard to defeat you in the ring. One way to gain the advantage over your opponent is by following an effective, well-planned nutritional program.

Nutrition is of utmost importance to boxers for a variety of reasons. First and foremost, the strenuous workout of the boxer can cause severe strain on your muscles and overall body. It is impossible to continue an intense training cycle without properly fueling the body. An old trainer once told me that having no energy in the ring is like having a brand new Cadillac with an empty tank of gas. Without fuel, your body will not respond or react in an optimum fashion. You require carbohydrates for energy as well as protein for muscle repair and growth.

Nutritional Information

Per 26g serving:
Branch chain amino acid

95 Kcal/39.6kj


Another unique aspect of boxing is that it requires athletes to compete within a confined weight range. Unlike football players who can enjoy endless portions of steak and chicken following a practice, boxers (except for heavyweights) must be careful to stay within a certain weight range. Failure to do so will result in the boxer having to drastically cut weight prior to competition which is a sure way to enter the ring with fatigue and weakness. It is best to follow a proper nutritional program throughout training to stay within 3-5% of your fighting weight. If you allow yourself to fluctuate higher, your body will often respond negatively to the drastic weight loss tactics.

The Specifics

Many fad diets and fat loss commercials preach the idea of reduced carbohydrates. The most common example is the Atkins Diet which prohibits carbohydrate intake while supplying the body with protein and fat. Unfortunately, fad diets such as these provide no value to the competitive boxer. As athletes, our nutritional demands are unique from the average person. The Atkins Diet is unhealthy for the boxer. The primary reason for weight loss under this diet is due to reductions in water weight as opposed to pure fat loss. In addition, the restriction of carbohydrates is unacceptable to the boxer whose energy needs far exceed the average person.

Carbohydrates provide energy thus are extremely important to our diet. We need carbs to fuel our bodies for the demands that we impose on ourselves both in the gym and while doing our morning roadwork. A good rule of thumb is to eat based on what you plan to do in the next few hours. For example, if you plan to workout at 4PM it is a good idea to get some carbohydrates in your system at around 1PM. You will use these foods as energy to get you through your workout.

Carbohydrates have got a bad rap as many claim them to be the cause of weight gain. This is untrue as weight gain is caused by an increase in calories accompanied by a decrease in physical activity. For example, do not eat a meal high in carbohydrates before you go to bed since you will not burn these calories while you dream the night away.

Protein is another important nutrient for the boxer. Protein is required for muscle repair and muscle growth. Following a strenuous bout or workout, you can expect tiny muscle tears, which give you the feeling of soreness. Protein works to restore muscles and aid in new muscle growth and development. Failure to eat sufficient protein will cause increased muscle soreness which leads to decreased performance. Good sources of protein include tuna, chicken, and egg whites (stay away from the yolks). Another good way to meet your protein requirements is through protein shake supplementation. Protein shakes provide a quick, convenient way to restore the body with 20-30 grams of protein.

Protein requirement guide

Type of athlete

Fat loss program
Weight gain program

Daily protein requirements per kg body weight (g)
1.2 - 1.4
1.4 - 1.8
1.6 - 2.0
1.8 - 2.0


Finally, lets talk about fats. We often shy away from the word fat as it is considered to be poison to our diets. While we must limit our fat intake, there are still some essential fats which are required for certain reactions to take place within the body. It is important to remember that there are different kinds of fat, some good and some bad. Fatty acids such as Omega-3 and Omega-6 are used for production of many different components including prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that help regulate many functions in the body. Research suggests that a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids called omega-3 may actually lower the risk of heart attacks and stroke.

Omega-3 fatty acids are considered the best and are found primarily in seafood. Good sources include mackerel, tuna, and salmon. Fish provides not only great protein but essential fats as well. The fats that you should avoid are those that are saturated. Stay away from fried foods and be careful to read the labels on all foods. Remember to get most of your calories from carbohydrates and protein. Some fats are OK as long as they are not saturated. Eat fish a few times per week and you will be fine. If you'd like a way to supplement the essential fatty acids without the fish, try taking the supplement Flaxseed Oil. It is available at any nutritional store or pharmacy and provides you with your essential fatty acids. I recommend a daily supplement of Flaxseed Oil.

Here is a summary of good nutritional tips...

·        Drink 8-10 glasses of water per day

·        Stay away from fried foods and saturated fats

·        Consume only essential fatty acids or take a Flaxseed Oil supplement

·        Eat plenty of carbohydrates and protein

·        Protein shakes are great after a hard workout

·        Eat 5-6 smaller meals spaced throughout the day

·        Read the labels of foods before you decide to consume them

·        Low fat does not always mean low calorie. Check calories and sugar levels

·        Be careful of high sugar juices.


Supplements for Nutrition and Performance


Each cell in our body relies on biochemical reactions for proper metabolism, growth, and recovery from strenuous exercise. These reactions rely on specific vitamins and minerals to facilitate their actions. Failure to supply the body with adequate levels of these nutrients will lead to decreased performance levels. Energy production and muscular growth rely heavily on specific vitamins and minerals. Boxers are notorious for overlooking the importance of these valuable nutrients. Without vitamins, muscle mass will decay, bone density deteriorates and body systems will fail.

As boxers we need higher levels of vitamins and minerals due to the nature of our training. Intense workouts deplete valuable nutrients in the body. For the human body to perform at its maximum potential, it requires a vast and complex array of vital nutrients. I have had great success supplementing with the Multi-Pro 32X. The Multi-Pro 32X is a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement designed for intense athletes such as boxers. You should strongly consider supplementing with a complete supplement such as Multi-Pro 32X.


Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning that it requires fat for your body to absorb it. Vitamin A is needed for the growth and repair of body tissues, bone & tooth formation, and necessary for night vision.

Food Sources: Liver, eggs, dark green and orange fruits & vegetables, dairy products

Vitamin B-1 (Thiamine)

Vitamin B-1 turns carbohydrates into energy. B-1 aids digestion, assists with nerve function, and promotes growth and muscle tone.

Food Sources: Wheat germ, liver, pork, whole grains, dried beans

Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin)

Riboflavin is necessary for tissue repair and healthy skin. It turns fats, proteins and carbohydrates into usable energy. It aids in cell respiration and the formation of antibodies.

Food Sources: Dairy products, green leafy vegetables, whole grains


Niacin converts fats, proteins and carbohydrates into energy. It is important for proper brain function, healthy skin, the nervous and digestive systems, and blood circulation.

Food Sources: Meat, poultry, fish, nuts, whole grains, dried beans

Vitamin B-6

B-6 plays an important role in converting fats, proteins and carbohydrates into usable energy for your body. It also aids in the formation of valuable antibodies.

Food Sources: Fish, poultry, lean meats, whole grains


Biotin is important for your skin and circulatory system. It also works to break down fats and proteins. Biotin plays a role in maintaining healthy hair. Biotin also aids in the formation of fatty acids and helps the body to utilize vital B vitamins.

Food Sources: Egg yolks, organ meats, dark green vegetables

Vitamin B-12

Vitamin B-12 aids in blood cell formation. It also aids in maintaining a healthy nervous system to convert fat, protein, and carbohydrates into energy.

Food Sources: Organ meats, lean meat, fish and poultry, eggs, dairy products

Vitamin C

Vitamin C helps heal wounds and increases your resistance to infection. It also strengthens blood vessels and aids in collagen maintenance. Vitamin C is also thought to reduce post-exercise muscle soreness.

Food Sources: Citrus fruits, melon, berries, vegetables

Vitamin D

Vitamin D helps maintain strong bones and teeth by increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D is acquired from both foods and the sun. Vitamin D is needed for healthy bones and teeth.

Food Sources: Egg yolks, organ meats, fortified milk, sun

Vitamin E

Vitamin E helps promote healthy circulation, promotes red blood cells and works as a valuable antioxidant. Many believe Vitamin E to aid in reducing muscle soreness.

Food Sources: Vegetable oils, wheat germ, nuts, dark green vegetables, whole grains

Folic Acid

Folic acid is important in red blood cell formation. It is necessary for growth and division of body cells.

Food Sources: Green leafy vegetables, organ meats, dried beans

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is essential for the proper clotting of blood to control internal bleeding and hemorrhage.

Food Sources: Green leafy vegetables, fruits, cereal, and dairy products

Pantothenic Acid

This B-Vitamin converts fats, carbohydrates and proteins into usable energy. It works with our adrenal glands and digestive system. It aids in cell building and maintaining normal growth.

Food Sources: Lean meats, whole grains, and legumes


Minerals are vital to human life. Minerals are inorganic substances not produced by the body. They are required for proper body function.


Calcium is essential for strong, healthy bones. A lack of calcium can lead to teeth problems, back pain, and weak bones susceptible to breaks. I have broken my hand three times from boxing and now realize the importance of calcium for strong bones.

Food Sources: Milk & milk products


Copper is required to break down protein to rebuild body tissue. It is required to convert iron into hemoglobin and essential for the utilization of Vitamin C. Our brain nerves and connective tissues depend on copper. Copper is very important to the boxer who must rebuild body tissues after strenuous workouts or competitions.

Food Sources: Oysters, nuts, organ meats, dried beans


Chromium helps to break down simple sugars in the body. Chromium helps in the production of insulin.

Food Sources: Brewer's yeast, cheese, whole grains, meat


Iodine is important to the thyroid, which controls metabolism. It plays an important role in mental reaction, energy and weight gain.

Food Sources: Seafood, iodized salt


Iron is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and certain enzymes. It aids in body growth, preventing fatigue and defends against disease. Iron is one of the most important minerals.

Food Sources: Organ meats, meat, fish & poultry, dried beans, whole grains & enriched grains, green leafy vegetables


Magnesium is a mineral that has the ability to relax nerves and muscles. Magnesium is important in converting blood sugar into energy. It helps our bodies to utilize Vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. Magnesium is another important mineral for boxers to ensure they operating with optimum energy.

Food Sources: Nuts, green vegetables, whole grains, dried beans


Manganese helps to nourish the nervous system, brain and regulate muscles in the body. It helps to stimulate enzymes that can convert protein, fats and carbohydrates into usable energy. In addition, it is important for reproductive systems.

Food Sources: Nuts, whole grains, vegetables fruits


Phosphorus is important for normal bone and tooth structure, the heart, and kidney function. Phosphorous is required for the body to absorb vital B-Vitamins and Niacin.

Food Sources: Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, dried beans, whole grains


Potassium helps regulate the water balance within the body. It aids in the transport of nutrients through the bloodstream. Potassium is also important for our nervous system.


Food Sources: Vegetables, fruits, dried beans milk & yogurt


Selenium is an important antioxidant to our body. It helps fight premature aging and hardening of the tissues. Selenium helps to keep tissues flexible and elastic.

Food Sources: Seafood, organ meats, lean meats, grains


Zinc is perhaps the most important mineral of all. It is important in RNA/DNA formation, the conversion of protein to energy, to the male prostate gland, and in working with calcium in bone formation. The heart, brain and productive organs all depend on zinc.

Food Sources: Lean meats, liver, eggs,


Boron helps to keep calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in our body and bones. Food Sources: Leafy vegetables, nuts, grains, apples, raisins, and grapes

maintain their weight within 10% of their weight division year round - even during times in the year when no tournaments are scheduled. Leading into busy competition periods, the aim is to achieve a gradual reduction in body weight and body fat for 8-10 weeks. Reducing body fat levels before competition begins, increases the athlete's power-to-weight ratio - a distinct advantage in weight category sports. Within 24 hours of the weigh-in, athletes who haven't achieved their weight category limit will employ mild dehydration in order to shed the last kilogram or so. As boxers have a minimum of three hours (and typically four to eight hours) between weigh-in and the start of competition, there is adequate time to rehydrate and refuel so performance is not impaired. Athletes who lose large amounts of fluid and become severely dehydrated to make weight, risk serious health and performance consequences


For aspiring boxers and athletes who are looking to develop a complete training program. These individuals seek assistance compiling a program that integrates strength training, plyometrics, sprint work, conditioning, skill work, and a multitude of other training techniques. There are numerous training techniques available, which often leave the aspiring athlete confused and befuddled when attempting to construct a weekly regimen.

There are many pieces in the complex puzzle that formulates a complete athlete. Time constraints, busy work schedules, family responsibilities, and class work only add to the madness. There is only so much time in a day, yet so many exercises you wish to perform.

How do you fit everything into one complete workout schedule?

One of the best ways to create your training schedule is by viewing your workout as a recipe for success. When you prepare a meal for dinner, you follow a recipe with certain ingredients. Certain meals taste better than others. These tasty meals are better for a variety of reasons. The quality of their ingredients may be superior. A meal may be cooked too long or not long enough. The amount of a certain ingredient may be too little or too much. An extra tablespoon of salt can ruin the meal…

Although this is not a cooking class, many of these ideas transfer to the fitness world. A recipe for athletic success includes superior exercise selection. It allows for better use of limited training time. Certain recipes prescribe longer rest periods, more or less intensity, more or less repetitions, and so on… There are a variety of training systems and techniques available to each athlete. The athlete may not have time to perform each and every exercise that he desires. He must make best use of his time.

Let’s take a look at a few simple steps you can take to outline your own training program.

One of the most important steps in developing a complete program is determining your training goals and objectives. How bad you really want it? Do you want to get in shape or do you want to win a championship?

Another important step is to determine how much time you have available to train each day of the week. Do you have 1, 2, or 3 hours each day? Do you plan to train in the morning and/or night? Write down your available training times on a piece of paper.

What are you good at, what areas require improvement? For example, if you are an excellent boxer with great technique but always run out of gas, you will need to focus on your anaerobic conditioning.

Next jot down the different types of training that you wish to include in your program. A few examples include skill training, sparring, strength training, anaerobic conditioning drills, running, plyometrics, balance training, etc…

Once you have your list of available times and types of training, you can begin to piece together the puzzle. Let’s look at a quick example.

Below is a list of training techniques that you may wish to include in your workout.

Conditioning drills: 2 or 3 days per week

Plyometrics: Not to be performed on consecutive days

Strength training: 2 or 3 days per week

Balance training: 5-10 minutes per day, every day or every other

Sparring: Not to be performed on consecutive days

Skill training: 4 or 5 days per week

Core training: 3 days per week

Let’s suppose that you have 6 days per week available to train. You have allocated between 1 and 2 hours per day. Let’s try to put these pieces together into one complete puzzle.

Sample Week
Monday: Balance training – Skill training – Conditioning drills

Tuesday: Sparring – Skill training – Core training

Wednesday: Balance training – Shadow boxing - Strength training - Plyometrics

Thursday: Sparring – Skill training – Core training

Friday: Balance training – Skill training – Conditioning drills

Saturday: Shadow boxing - Strength training – Plyometrics – Core training

Sunday: Rest

A serious fighter would also add a roadwork program to this schedule. Roadwork consists of various sprints, intervals, and distance runs. It recommended that a fighter run early in the morning so that he has all day to rest before training again in the evening.

Workout Summary

This is just one example of a possible training program. This routine includes 3 days of conditioning drills, never on consecutive days. It emphasizes skill training 4 days per week. Skill training for boxing includes heavy bag work, focus mitt training, double end bag, speed bag, etc… If you are involved in a different sport, you should adjust accordingly. Strength training and plyometrics are integrated into a complete routine twice per week. Balance training is performed 3 days per week. Core training is also performed 3 days per week.

It is much easier to develop a complete training schedule when you write down your available training times along with the exercises/training techniques you wish to include. Once you determine these two steps, you can piece together a complete workout that fits into your schedule. It is important to determine your needs, rate the importance of each training type, and allocate the time necessary to fulfill your goals.

Weight Management

So, You Want To Spot Reduce? Here's How...

Besides launching millions of sit-ups, leg lifts and torso twists, the desire for a toned and taut physique has sold a long line of exercise devices of dubious worth. Countless inventions, such as vibrating belts and 'gut-busting' contraptions, have claimed to miraculously tighten and tone our trouble spots. But the miracles we were expecting never materialized, and our 'spots' remained 'unreduced.'

What's Wrong With Spot Reduction?

Where did we go wrong? In our efforts to tone our bodies we neglected the most important factor: fat. Exercises such as crunches or leg lifts improve the tone and endurance of the muscles, but they don't burn fat. When we do exercises that elevate the heart rate, such as bicycling, walking or aerobic dance, the body will draw upon its fat stores for energy.

Alternative Solutions

Eating a low-fat diet and following an exercise program that combines aerobic activity and strength training is the key to changing the shape of your body. In addition to burning calories through aerobic activity, strength training will increase the amount of muscle, which burns even more calories. But many people shun the idea of intensive exercise, scared off by the idea of five-mile runs, barbells or aerobic classes.

Thankfully, any aerobic activity that elevates your heart rate can help you burn fat and take off unwanted pounds. Many experts recommend doing at least three sessions of 20 minutes of aerobic activity per week. Ideally, for long-term weight control, you should engage in at least four sessions per week, for 45 minutes each time.

For instance, these enjoyable alternatives to traditional aerobic exercise are effective fat burners:

Mountain Biking
In-line Skating
Country Line Dancing
Martial Arts
Cross-country Skiing
Downhill Skiing
Water Sports
In addition to these activities, which can be done solo or with friends and family, take advantage of the wide variety of fitness tapes currently on the market. You can learn everything from martial arts to swing dancing. Choose an activity because it interests you, not because it is touted as a great workout.

A few things to keep in mind when starting any new activity:

Don't start out too hard or too fast or you may injure yourself or quit before enjoying any benefit.
Always concentrate on enjoying yourself, rather than on what a particular exercise might do for you.
Keep your exercise comfortable and only increase intensity after your body becomes accustomed to new activity levels.
And always check with your doctor before beginning any exercise program, especially if you're over 40, or have cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or a family history of heart disease.


Eating Behaviour

Due to the weight considerations of the sport, some athletes develop unhealthy eating and drinking patterns. Occasionally, boxers develop dietary habits that resemble the cliché "feast or famine". When they are not in specific competition preparation they gorge themselves on high-fat, high-kilojoule food such as takeaways, deep fried foods and soft drinks. Then immediately before competition they restrict their intake to low energy foods in order to achieve rapid weight loss prior to competition.

Specific education that targets a yearly weight management plan assists athletes in avoiding this situation. Athletes are encouraged to maintain their weight close to their competition weight in order to avoid periods of restrictive dieting. A more balanced long-term approach ensures that athletes reach their weight safely, without undertaking extreme measures.

Fluid Balance

Many boxers and wrestlers find both Maxim Original and the Energy Bars particularly useful for maintaining energy levels in the competition phase when attention is focussed on making weight. They can be used to supplement a low bulk diet in the days leading up to competition and to boost energy levels in the period following the weigh in and immediately prior to a match. The high intensity activity nature of training for boxing, results in significant sweat losses and fluid replacement is critical to prevent dehydration. Maxim Electrolyte can be used during and immediately after hard training sessions to replace fluid and electrolytes and rapidly restore fluid balance. It also provides a source of complex carbohydrate to fuel the muscles during activity and to promote recovery. Where athletes have resorted to fluid and food restriction to make weight, Maxim Electrolyte can help to rehydrate and restore carbohydrate levels prior to competition.
Boxing, wrestling and judo places great demands on the anaerobic energy systems and athletes involved in these sports may benefit from supplementing with Maxim C150 Creatine. The increases in the body's creatine stores results in improvements in the ability to generate muscular power and in greater speed and stamina. Creatine loaded muscles also recover more quickly between short bursts of activity and are more resistant to fatigue. Many athletes find that they experience less muscle soreness after hard exercise and that the recovery time between training sessions is shortened.